The leader made his comment today when he received the letters of credence of Archbishop Antonio Mennini, the new Vatican representative in Russia.
"Russia pronounces itself in favor of developing a political dialogue with the Vatican," Putin said.
"We are convinced that our bilateral relations will contribute to resolve difficult questions" that the international community must address, such as terrorism, he emphasized.
Previously, Archbishop Mennini had been apostolic nuncio in Bulgaria, where he fostered good relations with the country's Orthodox Church, organizing the papal visit last May.
Russian authorities have expelled Catholic Bishop Jerzy Mazur of St. Joseph's in Irkutsk, in Siberia, and seven priests, denying them residence permits. The expulsions took place after John Paul II established four new dioceses last February in federation lands.